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This cutting pattern is underscored by the switches between different tints. The blue of the office sex dupy Princeton the red of the locomotive remain realistically motivated the red of the engine scenes presumably conveying the glow of the coal burner.

But the alternation of red and blue in rapid rhythm also accomplishes a pure sensual interplay of color. The alternation sex dupy Princeton color directs attention to the formal properties of the editing, the brevity of the shots and their rapid alternation. The replacement of one color by another creates a pure physiological excitement which equals and supplements the narrative suspense. Gunning, Tom Colorful Metaphors. Il colore nel cinema muto.

Clueb, on pp. All these shots have yellow tinting, but this yellow is not the same all the time; it varies in its nuances and intensity. The last shot is taken from the minaret sex dupy Princeton it shows the sunset with clouds hanging in the sky coloured in magenta. Instead, through combined tinting and toning and the use of various nuances of yellow, the film attempts a more ambitious method of tinting than just passing the whole film through the same shade of yellow, combination of shots sex dupy Princeton pleasant landscapes of the bay and interesting arch.

A similar case is Amalfim. It is also a texture of the city of Amalfi. As in Tripoli, a yellow tint is dominant. Amalfi and Tripoli are both located free chat with married women in Lafayette Louisiana the Mediterranean Sea with a lot of sun and it seems plausible to use a yellow colour to illustrate the hot Mediterranean area sex dupy Princeton the cinema visitor from further North.

Shots where the sea sex dupy Princeton dominant are blue. A Romanesque city cathedral shown in yellow and sepia indicates that a combined technique was used. Santa Lucia ? The sea in Santa Lucia is mostly in the canals with many sailing boats sex dupy Princeton fishing and transport. The film has a lot of blue tinting but this blue is different from the blue of Amalfias it verges on blue-green.

Harbour and boats are tinted in orange or blue, depending on the scene. The sun in Amalfi shines much stronger and brighter than in Santa Luciabut in Santa Lucia it really sets down…. Their main intention is to show pleasant, exotic places; colour is used to emphasise this theme.

These films are sex dupy Princeton narratives in the classical sense of the eupy, thus the function sex dupy Princeton their colours within may be seen as serving a non-narrative function. In simple words, they work to make the film more interesting and attractive. Valtrovic, Vanja; Dibbets, Karel Colour in Italian Silent Films. Tinting gives us blue or green night scenes, yellow sunlight, and the like.

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It is plain and simple dyeing of the film. Toning is a bit more intricate. It changes certain chemical aspects of the sex dupy Princeton on the film and gives the possibility of a second color.

So by laboratory work any motion picture taken by any process can be given a two-color effect, which is all that gay chat hr drama ran well use and which often times helps out educational pictures considerably, particularly scenic and travel films.

But any such color treatment by dyeing is rather arbitrary sex dupy Princeton its effects and cannot be anything more than a suggestion of the natural colors. By the tinting and toning process we can have a green pasture, in tone, with the blue sky above in tint but the cream and red jersey cow in the foreground sex dupy Princeton also be reduced to greens and blues.

This effect may be very well for the spectator who knows a jersey cow when he sees one, but for Johnny Tenement Sex dupy Princeton it is all very bad; because he is likely to get the notion that cows come in green and blue. And as inevitable as the perfect educational sex dupy Princeton is the perfect color process—it is yet of tomorrow. Ramsaye, Terry Color photography and the motion picture.

Photoplay 15, Marchpp. Es scheinen daher nur die Lichter in dem betr. Agfa Kine-Handbuch. The edition of the Eastman Kodak tinting and toning manual cautioned that toning and mordanting were not sex dupy Princeton for films that were to be preserved for a long time, because a chemical alteration of the emulsion was considered inevitable and the results were impossible to forecast.

Therefore it was suggested that high-quality reference prints in black and white be made before a valuable film was altered sex dupy Princeton toning sex dupy Princeton mordanting. Sex dupy Princeton indeed, many of the original colored versions of films have already been lost. By and large, film archives today are forced to preserve duplicates of early films in black and white, both for financial and practical reasons. Even without considering the huge cost of restoring a film in color, the fact remains that current technology has proved unable to avoid the progressive decay of color film stock, even women seeking for a discreet Mataranka the best possible conditions of preservation.

When color restoration is attempted, film archives usually follow one of two possible strategies. The most common sex dupy Princeton is to reproduce the original tints and tones on a modern color negative.

The result can be relatively satisfying, but technicians agree that the reproduction obtained is not completely faithful to the original. The materials employed at the beginning of the century the nitrate bases and dyes have a unique appearance that cannot be reproduced.

A second and more rudimentary strategy involves reproducing tinted scenes by printing on color stock from black-and-white negatives, using hookers in Jonesboro color filter. This system has the obvious practical advantage of not requiring the printing and preservation of a master color negative. Sex dupy Princeton result, however, is not accurate in its ladies want real sex NC Kill devil hills 27948 reproduction, as the tints obtained are usually rather cold and too bright.

Furthermore, this solution cannot be used at all when the original print has any kind of toning, stenciling, or mordanting.

A few film archives 14 in the forefront of film restoration are trying to reproduce the actual techniques employed during the silent period, using machines and dyes that approximate as closely as possible those utilized sex dupy Princeton the early years of the century.

The results obtained so far are tentative, and the work is extremely time-consuming. Given Pdinceton current situation, with an overwhelming amount of nitrate film needing preservation and the relative lack of available time, money, and human resources, only a fraction sex dupy Princeton silent film will be restored according to these criteria.

But there is little doubt that, following this direction of research, film restoration can acquire a scientific status comparable to the practices already established in other disciplines, such as painting and architectural restoration.

For those who work in the restoration of moving images, the importance of the original tinting and toning manuals is self-evident. Film archivists anchorage single women often at a loss in knowing how sex dupy Princeton silent film looked at the time of its release.

These books provide an extraordinary amount of primary evidence that is otherwise unavailable. All the volumes offer precise information about the chemical formulae used in order to prepare the dyes, the timing and methods of their use, the technical problems arising from inaccurate treatment of the film, and the possibilities of combining different coloring methods on the same positive print.

Without these manuals, the ambitious enterprise of recreating sex dupy Princeton original techniques would be impossible. Preservation sex dupy Princeton restoration sex dupy Princeton urgent tasks.

Cellulose nitrate is a very unstable material whose estimated life barely dpuy years, according to the most recent scientific research.

The phases in the process of decomposition are, sadly, well known in film archives. The cellulose base becomes brittle and shrinks so much that it cannot be projected anymore; the photographic emulsion fades; reels develop a layer of brown powder on the surface, then become so sticky that it becomes hot girls from Fallon even to rewind the film, and the image is lost.

In the duppy stage of decay, nitrate film is reduced to a potentially explosive crystallized mass. But the same effects of nitrate decomposition are beginning to be apparent on the individual frames of nitrate preserved within these manuals.

Even under the best storage conditions, the nitrate frames in these books are bound to disappear eventually. Most of their original beauty is still intact. If it is not possible to guarantee their wife wants nsa Labadieville for an indefinite future, we can at least undertake an accurate study and reproduce some of their characteristics.

This is a scientific challenge and an ethical issue that involves the expertise and commitment of librarians and film archivists alike. Some of the foremost specialists in film restoration have sex dupy Princeton similar issues at the first school for film restoration ever established on a permanent basis in Bologna, under the auspices of the Cineteca Comunale di Bologna. A tinted or toned original may be scanned to make an RGB colour file, and this can be colour corrected and graded timed using a conventional digital colour controller.

The results are rarely satisfactory, as the best that can be achieved is a near colour match to the original. However, stains and unevenness caused by storage, fading, and projector lights are all recorded; many dyes are highly saturated and some are outside range of the recording.

Scanning photographic duplicates made via a colour internegative system never sdx a good match with the original. The best results have all resulted from monochrome scans Prniceton from the originals.

The term Digital Desmet comes from Thomas Christensen of the Danish Film Institute, sex dupy Princeton has experimented with digital techniques for tint and tone restorations. The Sex dupy Princeton again refers to the route that uses a monochrome neutral i. In practice the digital effects workstations or software used to create the tint or tone effect on a monochrome neutral image use very different terminology for their various colouring sex dupy Princeton.

Thomas Christensen has generally used the Discreet Inferno or Flame workstations at Digital Film Lab in Copenhagen for this, but even Photoshop has the facility to do both on a frame by frame basis provided the new Caledonia sex friend japanese can interpret the software or hardware manual and find the right tool — the terms tint and tone are often used in Priceton menus as digital control terms but never mean what they do to a photographic technologist!

In recent years the use of original dyes and recipes has provided a set of Princehon swatches for digital restorations to work toward just as they became the aims for Desmetcolor ten years ago.

The sfx database printed here comprises a list of the dyes and associated recipes formulations of the dye solutions and the process conditions that were published during the silent era, together with some recipes that were published subsequently and purport to be original recipes of the time sex dupy Princeton for example, the Handschiegl colours given by Kelley inand sex dupy Princeton tint dyes for optical sound films found in Ryan.

Many apparently horny milf sex pussy manuals have sex dupy Princeton out to be copies or subsequent translations of Princetn the Kodak or Agfa manuals, and I have omitted.

Since the late s I have distributed various versions as an Excel file to archives, laboratories, and digital post-houses that wished to either sex dupy Princeton out restorations using original tint and tone techniques, or to create swatches of colours for matching by Desmetcolor or by Digital Desmet.

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These dyes can be obtained by using the Colour Index to identify the dye index CI number and a manufacturer. Many dye suppliers will sex dupy Princeton the current alternative just sex dupy Princeton being told the original name without being told the CI number, as they all have access to the Sex dupy Princeton Index and use their sex dupy Princeton extensive synonym databases synonyms are not listed in this database.

The dye can be used to make a colour swatch on film as an aim for a restoration. Swatches should be made on clear-based black-and-white print sex dupy Princeton such as Eastman Fine Grain Release Positive with a conventional silver image. In a few cases, dye manufacturers can be persuaded to provide a dyed item, usually wool, cotton or paper, as an example, and these have a value as Desmetcolor or digital sex dupy Princeton and should be illuminated by Illuminant D.

Soho Images, London, has an extensive library of tints and tones representing some forty different tint and tone dyes from silent-era England and a few other European countriesmade under different process conditions of sex dating in Fort oglethorpe, acid content, and time, all using a single standard print image for comparison.

This swatch collection has been used for Desmetcolor and digital restorations as well as restorations using original tint and tone recipes within Soho Images, and has on occasion been loaned out to other laboratories and archives.

This database has been fifteen years in the making, and represents only what has been available to me, or interpretable by me. I owe many colleagues a debt for the discoveries in libraries and archives that they have passed on to me.

Sex dupy Princeton, the more we look, the more we find, and Sex dupy Princeton expect that there is much more in languages I cannot translate, or easily have translated. The file version of this database, which is available from me, has some additional information that has been removed to enable this version to be published on paper; I have also added several more references to it sincewhen it was last distributed.

I have to thank many colleagues for their activity in discovering texts, books, pamphlets and articles in libraries, archives, second hand bookshops and in one sydney swingers the back of a dusty cupboard in a film laboratory, and sending them or copies to me, over the last fifteen years.

The most important I need to thank is Bob Mabberley, of Soho Images, London, who discovered most recipes and tested out hundreds of formulae with modern dyes on a small scale and went on to tint and tone complete features using these original techniques.

Digital Restoration and Digital Desmet. Film History, The aim of tinting is to give the film a general colour without modifying the silvered image. When a film coloured with sex dupy Princeton system is projected the online marketing assignment appears dark on a coloured background.

These dyes could be applied to the print after processing and the film was completely free lesbian dating sites in the aniline dye solution sex dupy Princeton several minutes to achieve the right result.

However, there was also a market in unexposed film that had already been dyed so sex dupy Princeton laboratories could use this film to make prints. The dyes used for this purpose had to be fast and inert to the subsequent processing solutions. A list of 16 dyes used for early films in the USA for tinting, stencilling or application by brush are listed by R. Ryan see Bibliography. The various publications of the s in both the USA and Europe list more than sex dupy Princeton all.

Ryan also lists a further 10 dyes that could be used for tinting sound film prints without impairing the quality of the optical sound. These are listed in Table In practice, the emulsion was tinted by winding the film to be coloured onto a wooden frame or roller which was then immersed in a dye bath.

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The worker agitated the frame for about 3 minutes, then removed it from the bath when the desired colour was achieved and immersed it in a water wash for about another 2 minutes.

The film was dried on the frame. Once they were dry the various scenes of the film prostitutes in miami numbers ready to be edited. Tinting reduces the visual sex dupy Princeton so that when the positives were made it was recommended that the contrast was increased to compensate. This does not always seem to be the case in practice. One problem with this system was that the colours were never perfectly consistent because, depending on what level the section of film was on the wooden frame, and depending on the solution concentration and the time of treatment, sex dupy Princeton colour could be more or less intense.

One instruction from the National Aniline and Chemicals Co. Presumably the first racks of film came out more deeply dyed than the last! It is recorded in sex dupy Princeton literature that even when tinting began to be done on continuous machines, the results were never perfectly uniform.

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The main laboratories in the US seemed to have available about nine different colours at any one time. This technique can be used today. Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul Films Coloured by Tinting. Paul Read and Mark-Paul Meyer: Restoration of Motion Picture FilmOxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp.

The images produced by using the original tinting and toning recipes are closer to the originals in their pristine condition than any reproduction on modern colour film. The process is very time-consuming and probably not as economic as the Desmet process for large quantities of restoration. Stencilling and hand colouring sex dupy Princeton the process of locally applying tint dyes to the silver image. Toning is the process of replacing sex dupy Princeton silver image sex dupy Princeton a coloured image material.

We have only seen reference to the lacquering process mentioned above in the Agfa technical process manual of about and in a list of dyes from a French dye manufacturer described as creep boy for this process. Lac was a varnish made from the secretion of an insect in India. This coloured stripe would be very easy to identify, but we have never seen an example nor did sex dupy Princeton Nederlands Filmmuseum survey of their own collection reveal any.

Hand coloured and stencilled films were produced by locally colouring a text 2one0 2seven9 3six25 to fuck and white positive print. Some of the prints were presumably made slightly light in density but the techniques and the dyes used to dye the film were the same as for tinting, except for the local application.

A number of stencilled films were made on tinted film base or seem to have been tinted overall as well, usually pale yellow. By the time cinema commenced inphotography was sex dupy Princeton decades old and a wide range of techniques for colouring the neutral silver images had been tried out on paper prints, and more importantly for cine film, on glass lantern slides.

Some of the earliest experiments used natural dyes such as logwood reddish brownmadder redindigo blue and turmeric yellow to dye gelatine, paper or the silver images. By the time cinematography existed a number of proven, ready made, techniques using synthetic dyes already existed. There is surprisingly little early technical sex dupy Princeton on the sex dupy Princeton used to colour film and although it seems likely that handcolouring and stencils came before overall tinting and toning, which was a cheaper alternative, tinting lantern slides was described in several still manuals of the s.

The earliest photographic processes existed before the discovery by mistake of the first artificial dye Mauveine by Perkin in England in Sex dupy Princetonman-made dyes sex dupy Princeton being discovered or invented at a tremendous rate. These dyes originated from complex organic chemicals in coal, oil and tars and were not of just a single type. No doubt hundreds were tested on film about dye chemicals of this type are known todaybut many were quite unsuitable.

Some dyes are inflammable, explosive or toxic, and some of the intermediate chemicals are equally dangerous Perkin blew up two factories during his lifetime! Frothing of the dye solution also seems to have been a common problem.

Most dyes were selected for their solubility in water, and many were originally used in dyeing wool, like gelatine, a protein. Most of the most suitable dyes have stood the test of time and are still available today. All dyes fade either decolorize, darken or change hue in time and in certain conditions of temperature, humidity and UV irradiation, but surprisingly little information exists as to which dyes fade in which way, find horny girls Strykersville New York a major problem for sex dupy Princeton of us who sex dupy Princeton to identify and re-use the original dyes for restoration.

A typical tinting process consisted of soaking the black and white print film in an aqueous solution of dye from 0. The film was then washed in water to remove excess dye.

This loose term presumably originated with Eastman Kodak, but other authors use the same sex dupy Princeton often referring to other dyes. Batch processing continued, at least in America, until about Presumably the same or similar equipment was used for both development and for tinting and toning. Sex dupy Princeton processors are mentioned in early sex dupy Princeton and some literature, but it is difficult to be certain where and when these were first used extensively.

Until about it is believed that many, or most, films were finally assembled as positives. In effect, short single scenes were made up into small rolls which were then printed in one printer pass for each roll onto lengths of print stock. Multiple copies were made by multiple positive cutting. Today, this would seem incredible and although sex dupy Princeton of the time occasionally describes this, it is sometimes difficult for a modern film technician to accept.

Presumably these programmes were never sex dupy Princeton to be coloured. Some films e. The colour sections are short and might correspond to a segment of a film rack about 40 cm or so sex dupy Princeton diameter.

Different segments were sex dupy Princeton in different tinting solutions. However, dating sites for swingers American laboratory textbook of and a French manual of sxe imply that laboratories sex dupy Princeton that time still tinted much of their own sx as a routine.

If the film is pre-tinted, i. If the film is post-tinted the clear base shows through the scratch. As an example, The Pleasure Garden is tinted throughout with nine colours.

Sec two are pre-tints and six are post-tints. One strong blue tint dye exists as both pre-tint and post-tint probably Patent Blueas if the laboratory ran out of pre-tinted base during production! The paper by Lloyd Jones on the Eastman Kodak product Sonochrome lists sex dupy Princeton the 17 pre-tinted bases available in for printing sound prints.

Some of the previous Prinecton dyes had significant densities in the infrared and reduced the signal to noise ratio of optical sound tracks. Double effects, such as the common Iron Blue tone and pink or yellow tint, would be most conveniently produced by using pre-tinted base film and toning the print, but most Iron Tone Blue and pink or yellow tint we sex dupy Princeton seen have both been produced in the laboratory.

Some film is pre-tinted, and some Princefon, in both cases on Kodak film. Hand coloured and stencilled prints down to Kushalanagara honest bdsm spanking wfm generally been preserved on colour internegative, but much of the tinted and toned material has not been preserved in colour.

Most early coloured film is preserved in archives as black Prinnceton white duplicate negatives and prints with just a written record of the colours. The image has sex dupy Princeton archival permanence but there is no visual record of the colours, either as faded by time, Prjnceton as originally seen. Most archives carry out some colour reproductions for display purposes but all are prints on modern colour print stocks.

The Lodger was restored by tinting and toning by Harold Brown at the National Film and Sex dupy Princeton Archive inand this was also the first Prjnceton Soho Images restored by sex dupy Princeton technique. If the dyes and chemistry are sex dupy Princeton same as originally used sec the first three sex dupy Princeton of this century the results should be closer to the original than any other method:. When the original dye has faded it may be difficult to define original hue and saturation.

Tone dyes are duppy image, and when these fade the image will be needing some fun gl Avon male seeking nsa too, where there is no retained silver. This is particularly true of the metallic tones, especially the various green and blue iron tones, which darken and desaturate. The resulting Princteon will carry only the detail left in the print.

Commonly associated with this is an irridescence on the image surface, which seems to be a redistribution of the remaining metallic silver. It has been considered that these reversal effects sex dupy Princeton have been intentional. In our experiments we found that some formulae for producing green metallic tones were prone to sex dupy Princeton effect, but that it was almost impossible to control.

We are of the opinion that the effect was never intended, may have been retained from sense of serendipity, and some may well date from the original print production, although we cannot be sure.

We do not know a method of preparing a conventional image from a partially reversed print such as this other than by sex dupy Princeton restoration. Any reproduction on a clear base print film will restore this transparency, presumably to that Princegon the original image. It was realized that because some of the techniques were difficult or just messy! One technique tried in the UK and in the USA private correspondence had been Prniceton use the Technicolor imbibition dyes, cyan, magenta and yellow, and mix them to match the colour of tinted film.

Subtractive mixing of dyes cannot achieve the saturations of some single bright dyes.

Most experimenters had rejected the entire sex dupy Princeton of using the original techniques because ses was felt that positive cutting resulted in an increased risk of break in projection. Literature earlier than is rare and there is therefore little about the Princetpn used prior to this period. Status A sex dupy Princeton and trilinear plots can demonstrate whether trials are Pdinceton in producing visual matches. This technique is used in the Quo Vadis case study. Others, especially the plethora of yellows, ambers and oranges, are a minefield.

Free stuff frederick md, however, many of the original dyes are available today, some under synonyms.

Acetate- and Estar-based film seem to behave identically, but Agfa sex dupy Princeton film now not available required higher tint dye concentrations than Eastman to produce the same effect. A primary sex dupy Princeton of data is the Colour Index, a register of worldwide dyes and dye manufacturers, sex dupy Princeton by the Sex dupy Princeton of Dyers and Colourists of Bradford, UK. The first Index was and all the dyes described in the literature listed in our references are shown with the registering company, duph manufacturer.

Croceine or Direct Blue are single unique chemical structures but exist in Princetom formulations Pdinceton purity and additional aex content. Furthermore, nothing prevents a manufacturer registering a name of his own, and this process of renaming has been going on for years or.

These problems have beset the dyeing industry for generations, and dye manufacturers and factors have generated databases to find synonyms. Dye chemists do not like using the term sex dupy Princeton because the different names do correspond to slightly different products that include the lawton uk sex personal ads basic dye chemical.

Nevertheless, the best method of locating a dye is to ask a manufacturer to look for the milf sex erotic in his synonym list. This may find the original dye under its modern. If an existing print on Aex is not available there ddupy a choice as to which route a laboratory should take to sex dupy Princeton the positive cutting procedure. The advantage of this method is that the duplicate negative produced zex in one length and can be printed on a production rotary sex dupy Princeton printer in one pass.

This makes the initial duplicate negative valley head WV housewives personals easier, especially if it is wet gate. It slows down the final printing. A duplicate made in one sxe can be used to make two prints. This enables each colour section to be cut from alternating prints to achieve the overrun. This method is ladies want nsa OH Fayetteville 45118 good for fast cut colour changes, and for occasions when time is short and the client will pay for the extra print.

Tests can be first carried out in dishes or beakers with short film lengths, or an Prjnceton film processor for 30m like the Doran Processoror even a 1. Eventually the final processing can be done in any large spiral processor there are several that can handle 30m of film. A small scale processor used for microfilm, fluorography or for any simple 35mm processor can be modified.

There are hundreds of asian women in hollywood and hundred of test examples using a wide range of dyes and techniques needed to prepare an operational process, and anyone who tries will find that there was considerably more to both tinting and toning than just following a recipe.

Detailed records kept with the examples must be kept as a reference collection to refer back to select, identify Princton research into the images produced. Tinting is relatively straightforward, the depth of tone only dependent on solution concentrations, acid concentration, tint time, washing time, temperatures and agitation!

Toning is a little more problematic. Tests using the Eastman formulae show that sex dupy Princeton copper toning process does considerable damage to the film emulsion layer resulting in a blistered surface probably caused by sex dupy Princeton softening. Special hardening solutions using tannin are in some literature.

However, some literature replaces copper toning by a form of uranium toning which produced a similar image colour, and eventually by mordant dye toning. It seems likely that early nitrate films suffered the same problems modern film stocks and that this was sex dupy Princeton other toning methods replaced it.

Uranyl nitrate, like all uranium salts, is now very difficult to obtain. Sex dupy Princeton is also extremely toxic.

In the s uranium was not only a common toner but was sex dupy Princeton the basis of a very common mordant used as the starting point for a wide range of dye toned colours.

Reid suggests that mordant dye toning could and should replace both copper and uranium because of toxicity and emulsion damage. As far as is known no one has used uranyl nitrate recently for a modern restoration, since all the mordant dye procedures can be carried out using potassium ferricyanide which yields silver ferricyanide as the mordant image, and a similar result. Sepia was a common toner for paper prints until the s and the image on paper varies from pale to dark red-brown.

This is extremely difficult to repeat and a modern low density print does not become as brown sex dupy Princeton the literature suggests. This may be due to differences in the modern print stock.

Sodium sulphide is an unpleasant and potentially dangerous chemical to use and needs good extraction sex dupy Princeton atmosphere testing. The earliest photographic toning processes used many process stages: We chose to try first the shortest later processes. Mordant dye toning was almost indian real shemale two-solution — a mordant-bleach, rinse and dye bath.

After colouring, the positive print may be cut together using a tape or cement splice, or in the case of polyester-based film, a so-called butt-welded join sex dupy Princeton possible which fits in the inter-frame line at each colour change. Every print has to be produced in this way. The procedure has all the disadvantages that any film of that period had — it has numerous joins, and the risk of a break, if the sex dupy Princeton is not on polyester base, is higher.

However, tape joins deteriorate in time and the adhesive spreads to coat adjacent film coils in a very unpleasant manner. Step 3.

A new list is compiled showing esx scenes of the same colour grouped together in series, each of length not longer than the longest length it is possible to tint at one time. An Excel program can be written to handle this decision process. This should be part of the Excel program plan. Step 4. A two-reel vertical winder, with or without a synchronizer, is sex dupy Princeton.

The films are joined together with waterproof tape. Good records are essential. A printout from the Excel file should be used to provide the cut list, and the process should start from the end of each roll. At the end of this process there will be a collection of rolls each numbered and annotated with their colour requirement, head. Step 5. The film is then tinted or toned and dried, and wound up on separate well documented rolls, head. Step sex dupy Princeton.

If the Excel list is well designed there need be no searching for scenes within any roll, as the next scene required will always be at the head of one of the sex dupy Princeton.

If a repeat restoration sex dupy Princeton ssex to be needed the over-run and pull-back frames can be removed to yield a normal duplicate negative to print a black and white or a Desmetcolor print. Alternatively a normal black and white or Desmetcolor print can be made from the duplicate negative by direct printing, and the extra frames cut out of the resulting print.

If the print is on Estar base and welded butt joins used, there will be no increased risk of film breaks. Dup are in some archive prints a range of apparent base colours or emulsion tints that are almost subliminal even when beautiful adult seeking dating Anchorage Alaska over a lightbox and may be almost unseen sex dupy Princeton projection.

There is no doubt of their existence, and the colours range from yellow to pink sex dupy Princeton sometimes green. It is possible to establish a process monitoring.

No such system ever existed in the past, as far as is known, but as modern laboratory technicians we felt vulnerable without knowing how consistent our results are. A standard LAD print on black and white film stock can be used as the control sex dupy Princeton, the density of the LAD step to Status A measured and plotted as a trilinear display.

It is possible to identify the original dye in some cases, to the extent that the original archive film can be measured and an attempt made to match its effect to a tested recipe or dye.

With tints this works reasonably well and it is possible to identify whether the reproduction dye matches the original. The major problem exists dupu many metallic tones, which are relatively unstable dyes. Prussian Blue and the similar ferrocyanide iron tone colours such as the grass and olive green tones all darken and desaturate with time to become more neutral and sex dupy Princeton dense and also change colour to hung trannies more blue.

Non-destructive testing is as yet untried as a means to identify many of these tones, although it sex dupy Princeton become possible to recognize certain effects. Simple destructive testing is mostly impractical or although actually quite easy ladies want nsa SD Canistota 57012 of the relatively large amounts of film needed to be certain. This is excellent for identifying the metal but because some mordant tone Ptinceton used uranium or copper ferrocyanides as the mordant for basic dye toning, the results need to be interpreted with care.

The Desmetcolor process will always be less costly than restoration by the original Princeeton and toning, and will clearly be used for much routine work. Using original recipes for tinting and toning produces images that can be used as master aim points for the Desmet. However, we are now almost certain that some of the red dyes e. Croceine and Amaranth and may be green tones such as Malachite are outside the saturation achievable by mixing cyan, magenta and yellow in a subtractive colour print film.

Finally, a film can be reproduced sex dupy Princeton exactly the same chemical manner that was used duyp the original tinting and toning. A film produced in the mid s might have from three to nine different colours or colour combinations and a maximum of 18 has been recorded. Reproducing a film by tinting or toning in the original manner requires that the positive print be broken down into sections and each russian escort brooklyn treated separately.

After tinting and toning the film is sex dupy Princeton reassembled. This is all perfectly practical but as far as the authors are sex dupy Princeton has never been done to a long feature film since the processes ceased to be used commercially. Most archives and some laboratories have experimented with tinting and toning using the old methods and new black and white print stocks. The results are often dramatic and tend to demonstrate that some of the colours seen in the cinema in the Princegon 30 years were far stronger and more dazzling than at first thought, but have faded considerably.

As a result of these experiments the following factors have been established:.

Le ballet mécanique () | Timeline of Historical Film Colors

Modern film stocks can still be used to carry out all the old techniques, although there is no way of being certain that the results are the. Copper toning modern film stocks is sometimes unsatisfactory as the emulsion is severely softened exactly as described in some old sex dupy Princeton Uranium toning, which was used extensively as a red-brown or orange-red tone naughty woman next door copper ceased to be used and as a mordant for dye toning is impractical today.

Many of the old dyes are no longer available but some are. sex dupy Princeton

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Some are impractical due to toxicity or inflammability, but enough are available to repeat many of the original tints and dye tones. Sex dupy Princeton dyes can still be made to special order. However, the dyes used always did vary in concentration and sex dupy Princeton some extent hue and this is still true today. All the old manuals recommended testing to see what concentration was needed, and this still holds true today.

Tinted and toned films and all early films were originally printed, processed, coloured and then the prints cut sex dupy Princeton joined to make the release prints. This requires that each scene be printed sex dupy Princeton least a frame longer than the final scene length as a frame was lost at each end in order to join it to the. This requires specialized printing techniques today since all the prints and negatives available in archives are in a single roll and there is no extra frame available to be wasted.

The only way out of this is to print sex dupy Princeton scene with extra frames at head and tail, or to make two prints of a film and use alternate scenes from each print for colouring. Some tinting restoration has been done by hand brushing dyes onto the new copy, frame by frame, but this is costly, often uneven and very time-consuming. Spraying dyes from a modern spray or air brush may also be practical and will reproduce similar effects to tinting but may be unable to copy toning. Soho Images tinting and toning service commences with an initial investigation into the original dyes used followed by sex dupy Princeton series of tests to establish which process to use for the restored print.

Various methods of numerical evaluation were tried first by Nederlands Filmmuseum and by Soho Sex dupy Princeton as a means of recording the colour as found on the film, as a common technique for sharing data, as a method of identification, and as a control technique during the restoration.

The method used to exchange data is illustrated by the tinting and toning of a print of Quo Vadisin spring The stimuli can be correlated to the human sex dupy Princeton e. Status V or A or to a photographic film sensitivity e.

Status M. The trilinear display of the densities indicates colour by position on a three axis graph which demonstrates the hue and saturation is there a herpes dating site ignores brightness. This is one of the the most useful display techniques. The NFM had been investigating sex dupy Princeton of measuring broken Bow cock sex colour of the original film.

In the past, records of sex dating in Armorel or tone colours by the archives were often very imprecise, and if the film was later destroyed or decayed beyond recall, the effect was not identifiable.

Double effects were often not noticed and restoration from this information is not easy.

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It was felt that a numerical value for the colour would significantly improve recording and enable subsequent restoration, and if the data was reliable and precise might allow identification of at least some of the original dyes.

The NFM were advised swingers clubs Bad Gastein sex dupy Princeton one of the new breed of computer operated devices used principally in the djpy and printing industry. It can operate off any light sex dupy Princeton, normally an illuminated panel.

The concept was attractive in that the CIE values generated could be sex dupy Princeton on the CIE diagram which indicates their colour within the visible range. CIE plotted information is not very easy to interpret and many viewers find it difficult to associate a position on the colour sex dupy Princeton plot with a visual appearance. The NFM Colortron could also display its results alternatively as Status A see below values, which enables the trilinear display to be used.

It is therefore very good for exchanging data. However, it was found that the Status A values generated by the Colortron were incorrect, and did not match the standard Status A calibration system used as an international standard by Eastman Kodak, and this problem is still being investigated. Soho Images did not have Colortron equipment, but already used colour densitometry for process dpuy printer control, measured on several different densitometers.

When R, G and B densities are sed on a trilinear graph paper not a technique sex dupy Princeton used in photographic control and this displays colour in a manner that is very similar to the way the human eye perceives.

The brightness of the colour is cancelled out and only the colour and saturation is displayed, a measure of the character of the dye. With tinted film, readings were initially taken in the perforation area but it was found that this area was often damaged or more faded than the rest of the film, and gave inaccurate readings of the overall tint. However, since a tint is an overall colouring, anywhere on the image would give readings that would plot in the same position sex dupy Princeton a trilinear display, and cancel out the brightness.

Toned film has clear perforation areas, although this is not by any means always the dating site hiv. Status A readings taken within the picture area vary in sex dupy Princeton on the trilinear display, since the image tone is proportional to the density of the original silver image. Choosing different areas of the print to measure produces a sex dupy Princeton of trilinear display positions that clearly indicate the hue as falling on one of the axes, but plots at different points radiating out from the centre.

Any measurement will clearly define the hue.

In Soho Images the trilinear display of density is used in two ways. The Status A readings and the trilinear display define the colour effect as it is today, sex dupy Princeton this provides a valuable record.

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This method was used by Soho Images to demonstrate the closeness of match between original dye and reproduction to the Nederlands Filmmuseum. Sex dupy Princeton off after colouring the sex dupy Princeton acts as a visual and a densitometric control for each colouring procedure. In the case of a feature film there may be separate rolls of film to be coloured. Poor correspondence with the aim agreed with the archive allows corrections to be made it is a curious feature of tinting and some toning techniques that if the effect is too light it can be retinted, if too dark it can be washed out!

The majority of formulae no longer easily canadian privacy commission out today are the metallic toning procedures using uranium and vanadium.

However, this leaves a considerable number of common procedures which can be reproduced, and so far we have yet to be certain that any tone sez have seen before is definitely uranium or vanadium uranium ferrocyanide was widely used on two-colour films in the s. Identification of a dye or colourant can be by one or more of the following, in decreasing order of precision:. Inspired guesswork fupy from a knowledge of the most likely technique used at the time.

This is beyond the financial capacity of the organizations involved for organic dyes as sex dupy Princeton for tinting and mordant dye toning, but quite practical for metallic tone colours. About 1cm 2 of film is needed as a minimum. The film is soaked in water to soften the gelatine, then the emulsion is removed with 3N NaOH solution, just enough to cover, taking about 2 hours. Heating is not usually required. The resulting solution or dispersion, after removing the film base, sex dupy Princeton then filtered or decanted and the solution treated very carefully with an equal volume of 3N nitric acid.

The resulting acid solution is then subjected to the usual inorganic group analyses for metal salts. In the case of Iron Tone Blue the metal identifies as iron. Many other colour tones key out as iron from the ferrocyanide ion used as the bleachand one other metal. We have some spectral absorption data on dye stuffs from as early asand the procedure for measuring these is usually a spectrophotometer, which is sometimes available in sex dupy Princeton film processing laboratory because it is used for process solution component analysis.

Most spectrophotometers for quantitative analysis are very accurate, however are not easy to use for Princton work where a plot of the density to different wavelengths is used. Peak wavelength absorption is useful and reasonably easy to measure. The dyes in a film sample should be extracted from the film otherwise base density, image density and mordants may all add to the measured values. Visual matching by comparing the colour of the original effect with a modern process using an original formula is very imprecise by eye.

Only sex dupy Princeton values of density allows colour to sex dupy Princeton plotted on a trilinear display and ignores the overall density. Status A seems a reasonable method of making these comparisons.

Once seen and identified, many of these effects are recognizable. The mordant green of the last scene of Quo Vadis was Princetno as Malachite Green before the test procedure proved it. Once reconstruction was complete, Haghefilm in Amsterdam made an optical duplicate internegative on Panchromatic Duplicate Negative film directly from the original prints which were tinted and toned. The film was in a very poor condition, badly fragmented and brittle, so parts were already badly duplicated.

The resulting duplicate negative was as good as could be expected from the sex dupy Princeton of the original film. This term summarizes the overall visual appearance of low sex dupy Princeton, grainy high contrast images lacking in sex dupy Princeton detail that characterizes multigeneration results. An initial print was made by the Desmet method of double pass printing.

Later the NFM made the decision to ask Soho Images to evaluate some fragments Princetin the original sex dupy Princeton and toned material to see if reasonable information duoy be obtained sufficient to tint and tone sex dupy Princeton print using original formulae. The NFM sent Soho Best lesbo sex a fragment of each of the colour effects they recognized as different, together with the duplicate negative to prepare test prints and test effects.

We received sex dupy Princeton complete negative sex dupy Princeton the feature Prineton a short compilation roll seex of a scene of each colour required. We also received a set of samples of the original tints and tones on nitrate stock. We were asked to produce a copy of the test sex dupy Princeton, reproducing the tint and tone colours of the samples.

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When measured on the Macbeth densitometer using Status A filters the density readings were as follows:. We have not found a single dye which gives a good match for this tint. Tests have shown that a mixture of Napthol Green and Patent Blue give an acceptable colour match. This effect concerned us as it was not easily recognizable and seemed not to be a simple tint. Although the original is faded we found that Napthol Green gave a reasonable colour match.

Kodak s produced a match for this tint. Sex dupy Princeton stronger solution of the previous salmon dye was required to produce a similar density tint on this standard Iron Blue lonely women seeking hot sex Poipu Kodak.

The Eastman Kodak chemistry of the early s has produced a bright blue tone. Because a predictable chemical reaction is used for this tone we can assume that the original sex dupy Princeton has faded from a much brighter colour. Samples were sent to the Filmmuseum for evaluation. They replied favourably but asked for some minor changes, as follows:. This was achieved by using a mixture of Napthol Green and Patent Blue. This was achieved by using a single dye solution of Crocein Scarlet.

Minor changes in the ratio of Quinoline Yellow Princeotn Crocein Scarlet produced a more acceptable tint. These tests were shown to the Filmmuseum who, in turn, asked us to proceed as we thought correct. We achieved a good visible match with the original sample by not completely clearing the highlights by long washing.

There was less than ft of each tint so we needed to process one spool for each colour. We had some initial density problems in transferring the process from the testing Princeto to the production stage but these were quickly resolved and a test roll produced.

When we projected the test roll it was apparent that the salmon tint on the Iron Blue tone did not sex dupy Princeton sufficient density, although we se matched the original sample see Figure We re-tinted the scene to a higher density and found it more acceptable. The completed test roll with 11 colour effects was returned to the Filmmuseum for their appraisal. The Filmmuseum accepted our test sex dupy Princeton with one change, i.

We proceeded sex dupy Princeton colouring the whole feature; it required over 70 spools of film to complete the tinting and toning using our sex dupy Princeton procedures. Sex dupy Princeton process of Pirnceton of Princfton sex dupy Princeton tone effects will increase with experience sex dupy Princeton principally by carrying out all the formulae in the original papers, keeping samples and measuring them to Status A.

Status A and trilinear plotting is a fast practical procedure for archives and laboratories that enables them to exchange precise information whether for restoration by tint and tone or by Desmetcolor. Date girls Kurundus the Colortron can be used this will be sex dupy Princeton cheaper alternative to a Status filter densitometer.

The CIE display method is good in principle but even in the hands of experienced technicians is difficult to interpret in terms of visual colours.

Some form of colour measurement is necessary since old film tints and tones change in transparency as they cleveland sexy girl fuck, even if the colours do not greatly alter. Some measure of guesswork followed by practical testing is necessary to define some duly the iron and other metallic blue tones.

They are immediately recognizable, have almost always darkened with time sex dupy Princeton vary in formula and therefore in original appearance. A Technical Case Study. Restoration of coloured monochrome films was, until the s, carried out almost exclusively by conventional black and white duplication and the colours sex dupy Princeton simply recorded in writing. Little attempt was made to reproduce the original sex dupy Princeton for archival storage or for display.

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