in the liver, is a water-soluble
vitamin needed for normal nerve cell activity, DNA
replication, and is also a cofactor for two coenzymes?
deficency and Vitamin B12 deficency symptoms are similar.
numerous of those symptoms are pretty general and may cause
medical states other than vitamin B12 deficiency.
B12 Functions/Vitamin B12 benefits: Cobalamin acts with vit
B6 and folic acid to control homocystein
elevated homocysteine level is responsible of 15% of heart
attacks and strokes in the world today. It also increases
risk of other diseases such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s
vital to make a physician or doctor evaluate those symptoms
in order that proper medicinal care may be provided.
b12 Sources: B12 is found only in all foods of animal
origin, including egg yolks, dairy, fish, fermented cheeses,
dry milk, poultry, organ meats and bivalve mollusks such as
clams and oysters.
believe that people cannot rely on vegetarian food to get
B12 in sufficient quantities. There is no human-active form
of B12 in algae such as nori and spirulina; the forms are
B12 Dosage Range
people do not require B12 supplements. However, there are
categories of people who need it:
supplement with at least 2 to 3 mcg per day of B12 because
they don't get it from the animal
People with pernicious
anemia .They are often treated with injections of B12 or
oral administration of 1,000 mcg per day.
Elderly: Absorption of B12 is
reduced with increasing age. Some research suggests that
elderly people may benefit from 10 to 25 mcg per day of
should take B12 supplements providing at least the
recommended dose of B12 varies from 2.0 mcg to 300 mcg
depending on the severity of the
buying from companies that follow GMP (Growth Manufacturing
Practice) and present other benefits like low prices or low
shipping cost. These are:
to happen but possible. Cases with Vitamin B12 deficiency
Vegetarians who also avoid
dairy and eggs frequently become
absorbed, B12 is secreted in bile and reabsorbed, symptoms
of deficiency may take 20 years to develop from low intakes,
e.g., in strict vegetarians.
People with malabsorption
conditions, including those with tapeworm infestation and
those with bacterial overgrowth in the
malabsorption, vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in months or a
few years because absorption from both the diet and
enterohepatic circulation is impaired. Malabsorption of B12
can also result from pancreatic disease.
Pernicious anemia (an auto
immune disease).It's a well-known form of B12 malabsorption
cause by impaired ability of specialized stomach cells to
produce intrinsic factor—a molecule used by the body to
definition, all people with pernicious anemia are vitamin
B12 deficient. They require either B12 injections or oral
supplementation with very high levels (1000 mcg per day) of
In the elderly, atrophic
gastritis is commonly associated with B12 malabsorption and
people with urinary incontinence and hearing loss have been
reported to be at increased risk of B12
Helicobacter pylori, a common etiologic factor of gastritis
and ulcers (but not the one), has been shown to cause or
contribute to adult B12 deficiency.
happens? H. pylori has this effect by damaging cells in the
stomach that make intrinsic factor—a substance needed for
normal absorption of B12. People with H. pylori infections
should have B12 status monitored.
often have low blood levels of B12.
A disproportionate amount
of people with psychiatric disorders are deficient in
Although blood levels of
B12 may be higher in alcoholics, actual body stores of
vitamin B12 in the tissues (e.g., the liver) of alcoholics
is frequently deficient.
Pregnant women: They may
be "false deficient”. Low blood levels of B12 are sometimes
seen in pregnant women, however, this does not always
indicate a B12 deficiency. I recommend to you to verify
with the physician for this.
B12 Toxicity - Vitamin B12 Side Effects, Health Conditions
and Recent Research
No toxic effects have been reported when up to 100 µg/day
are consumed. Hydroxocobalamin (a form of vitamin B12) has
been recognized for more than 40 years as an effective
antidote to cyanide poisoning.
currently being used in a few countries for that purpose.
Because of its safety, hydroxocobalamin is considered by
some researchers to be an ideal treatment for cyanide
injections of 100 µg are usually given once/month to
individuals who cannot absorb B12 through their intestine,
because of pernicious anemia or other
Anemia (if B12 deficiency
Depression (in people with
(combination with folic acid and B6)
Pernicious anemia (B12
Cyanide poisoning (B12
acts as an antidote)
Cystic fibrosis (in people
with vitamin B12 deficiency)
Indigestion (for people
with the combination of low B12 levels and Helicobacter
research: B12 deficency may increase the risk of neural tube
defects in pregnant women with a high risk of this
deficiency may be common in developing countries, perhaps
due to malabsorption and low intakes.