Vitamin Supplement

Vitamin B12



Vitamin B12 stored in the liver, is a water-soluble vitamin needed for normal nerve cell activity, DNA replication, and is also a cofactor for two coenzymes?  


Folic acid deficency and Vitamin B12 deficency symptoms are similar.  


And numerous of those symptoms are pretty general and may cause medical states other than vitamin B12 deficiency.  


Vitamin B12 Functions/Vitamin B12 benefits: Cobalamin acts with vit B6 and folic acid to control homocystein levels. vitamin b12 image


An elevated homocysteine level is responsible of 15% of heart attacks and strokes in the world today. It also increases risk of other diseases such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease.  


That’s vital to make a physician or doctor evaluate those symptoms in order that proper medicinal care may be provided.  


Vitamin b12 Sources: B12 is found only in all foods of animal origin, including egg yolks, dairy, fish, fermented cheeses, dry milk, poultry, organ meats and bivalve mollusks such as clams and oysters. 


Physicians believe that people cannot rely on vegetarian food to get B12 in sufficient quantities. There is no human-active form of B12 in algae such as nori and spirulina; the forms are all analogues. 

Vitamin B12 Dosage Range 

Most people do not require B12 supplements. However, there are categories of people who need it: 


  •  Vegetarians should supplement with at least 2 to 3 mcg per day of B12 because they don't get it from the animal sources. 


  •  People with pernicious anemia .They are often treated with injections of B12 or oral administration of 1,000 mcg per day. 


  •  Elderly:  Absorption of B12 is reduced with increasing age. Some research suggests that elderly people may benefit from 10 to 25 mcg per day of vitamin B12. 


  •  Pregnant, lactating, should take B12 supplements providing at least the RDA. 


The recommended dose of B12 varies from 2.0 mcg to 300 mcg depending on the severity of the deficiency. 


We suggest buying from companies that follow GMP (Growth Manufacturing Practice) and present other benefits like low prices or low shipping cost. These are: 


  •  Total Balance 


  •  Revitle 

Vitamin B12 Deficency 

Difficult to happen but possible. Cases with Vitamin B12 deficiency are: 


  •  Vegetarians who also avoid dairy and eggs frequently become deficient. 


When absorbed, B12 is secreted in bile and reabsorbed, symptoms of deficiency may take 20 years to develop from low intakes, e.g., in strict vegetarians. 


  •  People with malabsorption conditions, including those with tapeworm infestation and those with bacterial overgrowth in the intestines. 


In malabsorption, vitamin B12 deficiency occurs in months or a few years because absorption from both the diet and enterohepatic circulation is impaired. Malabsorption of B12 can also result from pancreatic disease. 


  •  Pernicious anemia (an auto immune disease).It's a well-known form of B12 malabsorption cause by impaired ability of specialized stomach cells to produce intrinsic factor—a molecule used by the body to absorb cobalamin. 


By definition, all people with pernicious anemia are vitamin B12 deficient. They require either B12 injections or oral supplementation with very high levels (1000 mcg per day) of vitamin B12. 


  •  In the elderly, atrophic gastritis is commonly associated with B12 malabsorption and deficiency. 


Older people with urinary incontinence and hearing loss have been reported to be at increased risk of B12 deficiency. 


  •  Infection with Helicobacter pylori, a common etiologic factor of gastritis and ulcers (but not the one), has been shown to cause or contribute to adult B12 deficiency. 


How this happens? H. pylori has this effect by damaging cells in the stomach that make intrinsic factor—a substance needed for normal absorption of B12. People with H. pylori infections should have B12 status monitored. 


  •  HIV-infected patients often have low blood levels of B12. 


  •  A disproportionate amount of people with psychiatric disorders are deficient in B12. 


  •  Although blood levels of B12 may be higher in alcoholics, actual body stores of vitamin B12 in the tissues (e.g., the liver) of alcoholics is frequently deficient. 


  •  Pregnant women: They may be "false deficient”. Low blood levels of B12 are sometimes seen in pregnant women, however, this does not always indicate a B12 deficiency. I recommend to you to verify with the physician for this. 


Vitamin B12 Toxicity - Vitamin B12 Side Effects, Health Conditions and Recent Research 

Toxicity: No toxic effects have been reported when up to 100 µg/day are consumed. Hydroxocobalamin (a form of vitamin B12) has been recognized for more than 40 years as an effective antidote to cyanide poisoning. 


It is currently being used in a few countries for that purpose. Because of its safety, hydroxocobalamin is considered by some researchers to be an ideal treatment for cyanide poisoning. 


Intramuscular injections of 100 µg are usually given once/month to individuals who cannot absorb B12 through their intestine, because of pernicious anemia or other problems. 


Health Conditions Related: 


  •  Anemia (if B12 deficiency occurs) 


  •  Depression (in people with B12 deficiency) 


  •  High homocysteine (combination with folic acid and B6) 


  •  Pernicious anemia (B12 deficiency) 


  •  Chronic fatigue syndrome 


  •  Cyanide poisoning (B12 acts as an antidote) 


  •  Cystic fibrosis (in people with vitamin B12 deficiency) 


  •  Indigestion (for people with the combination of low B12 levels and Helicobacter pylori infection) 


  •  Infertility (male) 


  •  Low back pain 


  •  Migraine headaches 


  •  Sickle cell anemia 


Recent research: B12 deficency may increase the risk of neural tube defects in pregnant women with a high risk of this condition. 


B12 deficiency may be common in developing countries, perhaps due to malabsorption and low intakes.